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The Universe is Hostile to Computers

Short article concerning rate run– https://ve42.co/BountySpeedrun.

Edmonds, L. D., Barnes, C. E., & Scheick, L. Z. (2000 ). An intro to area radiation impacts on microelectronics.

Excellent write-up regarding Cosmic Rays triggering flashes– https://ve42.co/AtkinsonEye.

Short article concerning rate run– https://ve42.co/BurttSpeedrun.

Ziegler, J. F., & Lanford, W. A. (1979 ). Impact of planetary rays on computer system memories. Scientific research, 206( 4420 ), 776-788 https://ve42.co/Ziegler1979.

NASA Mars 2020 site covering the specs of the Perseverance Rover https://ve42.co/RoverBrains.

Carlson, P., & De Angelis, A. (2011 ). Nationalism and internationalism in scientific research: the instance of the exploration of planetary rays.

Michael Barr’s record on the Toyota velocity problem– https://ve42.co/Barr2015.

Excellent Blog article regarding QF72– https://ve42.co/DempseyQantas.

A Huge many thanks to Dr Leif Scheick, Calla Cofield and the JPL Media Relations Team.

Many Thanks to Col Chris Hadfield. Take a look at his publication: https://chrishadfield.ca/books/

This video clip was influenced by the RadioLab Podcast “Bit Flip” https://ve42.co/BF– they’re dazzling scientific research authors.

D. Binder, E. C. Smith and A. B. Holman, “Satellite Anomalies from Galactic Cosmic Rays,” in IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 2675-2680, Dec. 1975, doi: 10.1109/ TNS.1975.4328188 https://ve42.co/Binder1975.

NASA’s Report on Toyota– https://ve42.co/NASAToyota.

Tiny bits from far-off galaxies have actually triggered aircraft mishaps, political election disturbance and video game problems. This video clip is funded by Brilliant. The very first 200 individuals to register through https://brilliant.org/veritasium obtain 20% off an annual registration.

Excellent write-up concerning radiation resistance– https://ve42.co/RoverResistance.

Höeffgen, S. K., Metzger, S., & Steffens, M. (2020 ). Examining the impacts of planetary rays on room electronic devices.

Unique many thanks to Patreon advocates: Paul Peijzel, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Sam Lutfi, MJP, Gnare, Nick DiCandilo, Dave Kircher, Edward Larsen, Burt Humburg, Blake Byers, Dumky, Mike Tung, Evgeny Skvortsov, Meekay, Ismail Öncü Usta, Paul Peijzel, Crated Comments, Anna, Mac Malkawi, Michael Schneider, Oleksii Leonov, Jim Osmun, Tyson McDowell, Ludovic Robillard, Jim buckmaster, fanime96, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Robert Blum, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Vincent, Marinus Kuivenhoven, Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Joar Wandborg, Clayton Greenwell, Pindex, Michael Krugman, Cy ‘kkm’ K’Nelson, Sam Lutfi, Ron Neal.

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Recommendations:.
J. F. Ziegler, “Terrestrial planetary rays,” in IBM Journal of Research and Development, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 19-39, Jan. 1996, doi: 10.1147/ rd. 401.0019.– https://ve42.co/Ziegler1996.

P. M. O’Neill and G. D. Badhwar, “Single occasion troubles for Space Shuttle trips of brand-new basic function computer system memory tools,” in IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 1755-1764, Oct. 1994, doi: 10.1109/ 23.317386.– https://ve42.co/ONeill1994.

J. F. Ziegler, “Terrestrial planetary rays,” in IBM Journal of Research and Development, vol. Result of planetary rays on computer system memories. Beginning of planetary rays. Nationalism and internationalism in scientific research: the instance of the exploration of planetary rays. Exploring the results of planetary rays on area electronic devices.

Australian Government Australian Transport Safety Bureau recap on QF72– https://ve42.co/ASTBQantas2.

Hess, V. (2018 ). On the monitorings of the passing through radiation throughout 7 balloon trips.

T. C. May and M. H. Woods, “A New Physical Mechanism for Soft Errors in Dynamic Memories,” 16th International Reliability Physics Symposium, 1978, pp. 33-40, doi: 10.1109/ IRPS.1978.362815.– https://ve42.co/May1978.

Towards Monitoring Fault-Tolerant Embedded.
Solution (Extended Abstract)– https://ve42.co/Goodloe2009.

Drury, L. O. C. (2012 ). Beginning of planetary rays.

Write-up regarding repetitive systems in spaceflight– https://ve42.co/NASAComputers.

Fuglesang C, Narici L, Picozza P, Sannita WG. Phosphenes in reduced planet orbit: study feedbacks from 59 astronauts. Aviat Space Environ Med.

Wikipedia regarding radiation solidifying– https://ve42.co/RadHardening.

Created by Derek Muller and Petr Lebedev.
Computer Animation by Ivy Tello, Mike Radjabov, Fabio Albertelli, Jakub Misiek and Charlie Davies.
SFX by Shaun Clifford.
Shot by Derek Muller, Raquel Nuno, and Emily Zhang.
Modified by Derek Muller and Petr Lebedev.
SFX by Shaun Clifford.
Extra video clip provided by Getty Images.
Vagabond Footage From NASA/JPL-Caltech.
QF72 video footage from the Smithsonian network https://youtu.be/H3q5S9PCoJA.
SM64 video from https://ve42.co/pannenkoek2012.
Songs from Epidemic Sound.
Generated by Derek Muller, Petr Lebedev and Emily Zhang.

Write-up regarding the PowerPC750– https://ve42.co/Wener-FlignerNASA.

Australian Government Australian Transport Safety Bureau record on QF72– https://ve42.co/ASTBQantas.